Hannibal – Der Albtraum Roms (Originaltitel: Hannibal – Rome's Worst Nightmare) ist ein von der BBC produzierter dramatisierter Dokumentarfilm aus dem Jahr. Dort eroberte Hamilkar Barkas große Gebiete, die zum einen die territorialen Verluste Karthagos im letzten Krieg gegen Rom. Darauf gibt der Hannibal-Biograf Pedro Barceló von der Universität Potsdam eine verblüffende Antwort: Der Karthager wollte Rom gar nicht.
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Der Zweite Punische Krieg wurde von v. Chr. bis v. Chr. zwischen Römern und Karthagern ausgetragen. Der karthagische Feldherr Hannibal aus dem Geschlecht der Barkiden brachte Rom zunächst durch eine Reihe taktisch geschickt geführter. Im Jahr v. Chr. kommt es zum Krieg zwischen Rom und Karthago. Dessen Heerführer Hannibal überrascht die Römer: Er überquert die Alpen, bis nach. Dort eroberte Hamilkar Barkas große Gebiete, die zum einen die territorialen Verluste Karthagos im letzten Krieg gegen Rom. Hannibal – Der Albtraum Roms (Originaltitel: Hannibal – Rome's Worst Nightmare) ist ein von der BBC produzierter dramatisierter Dokumentarfilm aus dem Jahr. Darauf gibt der Hannibal-Biograf Pedro Barceló von der Universität Potsdam eine verblüffende Antwort: Der Karthager wollte Rom gar nicht. Pedro A. Barceló. VI. Hannibal ante portas: Rom wehrt sich Als nach der Katastrophe von Cannae der von Hannibal besiegte römische Consul Terentius Varro. Hannibal – Der größte Gegner Roms. An einem Frühlingstag des Jahres v. Chr. trat ein neunjähriger Junge an den Altar, an dem sein Vater Hamilkar ein.
Hannibal – Der größte Gegner Roms. An einem Frühlingstag des Jahres v. Chr. trat ein neunjähriger Junge an den Altar, an dem sein Vater Hamilkar ein. Hannibal – Der Albtraum Roms (Originaltitel: Hannibal – Rome's Worst Nightmare) ist ein von der BBC produzierter dramatisierter Dokumentarfilm aus dem Jahr. Darauf gibt der Hannibal-Biograf Pedro Barceló von der Universität Potsdam eine verblüffende Antwort: Der Karthager wollte Rom gar nicht. zolcsi-tax.eu: Finden Sie Hannibal - Der Albtraum Roms in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von. Hannibal (* zolcsi-tax.eu) nimmt mit beispiellosem Durchhaltevermögen und einer neu entwickelten Heerestaktik, der sog. Kesselschlacht, den Kampf mit Rom auf. In seiner späteren Jugend symbolisierte der karthagisch-römische Konflikt für ihn den Gegensatz zwischen jüdischer Beharrlichkeit und katholischer Ordnung. Hannibals jüngere Brüder waren Hasdrubal Hellsing Serien Stream Magodie ebenfalls als karthagische Feldherrn dienten. Den Sieg zu Rosewood Serien Stream aber verstehst du nicht! Als sie den v. Dieser Artikel behandelt den karthagischen Feldherrn. Um einem römischen Angriff auf Spanien zuvorzukommen, überschritt er die Alpen mit wahrscheinlich mehr als Gleichzeitig wird das Kind von zwei Priestern angeleitet; dabei deutet der Priester im dunklen Gewand auf die Statue eines sitzenden römischen Soldaten.
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On this occasion, the two armies were combined into one, the consuls having to alternate their command on a daily basis. Varro was in command on the first day, a man of reckless and hubristic nature according to Livy and determined to defeat Hannibal.
This eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the combat area. Hannibal drew up his least reliable infantry in a semicircle in the center with the wings composed of the Gallic and Numidian horse.
The onslaught of Hannibal's cavalry was irresistible. Hannibal's chief cavalry commander Maharbal led the mobile Numidian cavalry on the right, and they shattered the Roman cavalry opposing them.
Hannibal's Iberian and Gallic heavy cavalry, led by Hanno on the left, defeated the Roman heavy cavalry, and then both the Carthaginian heavy cavalry and the Numidians attacked the legions from behind.
As a result, the Roman army was hemmed in with no means of escape. Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal managed to surround and destroy all but a small remnant of his enemy, despite his own inferior numbers.
Depending upon the source, it is estimated that 50,—70, Romans were killed or captured. This makes the battle one of the most catastrophic defeats in the history of Ancient Rome , and one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history in terms of the number of lives lost within a single day.
After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle, preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower.
As a result, Hannibal fought no more major battles in Italy for the rest of the war. Whatever the reason, the choice prompted Maharbal to say, "Hannibal, you know how to gain a victory, but not how to use one.
As a result of this victory, many parts of Italy joined Hannibal's cause. It is often argued that, if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage, he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome.
However, only a few of the Italian city-states that he had expected to gain as allies defected to him. The war in Italy settled into a strategic stalemate.
The Romans used the attritional strategy that Fabius had taught them, and which, they finally realized, was the only feasible means of defeating Hannibal.
His immediate objectives were reduced to minor operations centered mainly round the cities of Campania. The forces detached to his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make up his losses.
His position in southern Italy, therefore, became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote.
However, Hannibal slowly began losing ground—inadequately supported by his Italian allies, abandoned by his government either because of jealousy or simply because Carthage was overstretched , and unable to match Rome's resources.
He was never able to bring about another grand decisive victory that could produce a lasting strategic change.
Carthaginian political will was embodied in the ruling oligarchy. There was a Carthaginian Senate, but the real power was with the inner " Council of 30 Nobles " and the board of judges from ruling families known as the " Hundred and Four ".
These two bodies came from the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. Two political factions operated in Carthage: the war party, also known as the " Barcids " Hannibal's family name ; and the peace party led by Hanno II the Great.
Hanno had been instrumental in denying Hannibal's requested reinforcements following the battle at Cannae. Hannibal started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy.
His attack of Saguntum had presented the oligarchy with a choice of war with Rome or loss of prestige in Iberia. The oligarchy, not Hannibal, controlled the strategic resources of Carthage.
Hannibal constantly sought reinforcements from either Iberia or North Africa. Hannibal's troops who were lost in combat were replaced with less well-trained and motivated mercenaries from Italy or Gaul.
The commercial interests of the Carthaginian oligarchy dictated the reinforcement and supply of Iberia rather than Hannibal throughout the campaign.
The tide was slowly turning against him, and in favor of Rome. The Roman consuls mounted a siege of Capua in BC. Hannibal attacked them, forcing their withdrawal from Campania.
He moved to Lucania and destroyed a 16,man Roman army at the Battle of the Silarus , with 15, Romans killed. Another opportunity presented itself soon after, a Roman army of 18, men being destroyed by Hannibal at the first battle of Herdonia with 16, Roman dead, freeing Apulia from the Romans for the year.
Hannibal attempted to lift the siege with an assault on the Roman siege lines but failed. He marched on Rome to force the recall of the Roman armies.
He drew off 15, Roman soldiers, but the siege continued and Capua fell. Philip, who attempted to exploit Rome's preoccupation in Italy to conquer Illyria , now found himself under attack from several sides at once and was quickly subdued by Rome and her Greek allies.
On hearing, however, of his brother's defeat and death at the battle of the Metaurus , he retired to Calabria , where he maintained himself for the ensuing years.
His brother's head had been cut off, carried across Italy, and tossed over the palisade of Hannibal's camp as a cold message of the iron-clad will of the Roman Republic.
The combination of these events marked the end to Hannibal's success in Italy. After leaving a record of his expedition engraved in Punic and Greek upon bronze tablets in the temple of Juno Lacinia at Crotona , he sailed back to Africa.
Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols that ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet.
Scipio and Carthage had worked out a peace plan, which was approved by Rome. The terms of the treaty were quite modest, but the war had been long for the Romans.
Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire. Masinissa Numidia was to be independent. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity.
But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripped it of supplies, an action that aggravated the faltering negotiations.
Meanwhile, Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian Senate, had returned with his army. Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests.
The decisive battle of Zama soon followed; the defeat removed Hannibal's air of invincibility. Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War , at Zama, the Romans were superior in cavalry and the Carthaginians had the edge in infantry.
Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants.
The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful, including playing trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines.
Some historians say that the elephants routed the Carthaginian cavalry and not the Romans, whilst others suggest that it was actually a tactical retreat planned by Hannibal.
At one point, it seemed that Hannibal was on the verge of victory, but Scipio was able to rally his men, and his cavalry, having routed the Carthaginian cavalry, attacked Hannibal's rear.
This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to collapse. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to surrender.
Carthage lost approximately 20, troops with an additional 15, wounded. In contrast, the Romans suffered only 2, casualties.
The last major battle of the Second Punic War resulted in a loss of respect for Hannibal by his fellow Carthaginians. The conditions of defeat were such that Carthage could no longer battle for Mediterranean supremacy.
Hannibal was still only 46 at the conclusion of the Second Punic War in BC and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier.
Following the conclusion of a peace that left Carthage saddled with an indemnity of ten thousand talents , he was elected suffete chief magistrate of the Carthaginian state.
The principal beneficiaries of these financial peculations had been the oligarchs of the Hundred and Four. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year, with none permitted to "hold office for two consecutive years.
Seven years after the victory of Zama, the Romans, alarmed by Carthage's renewed prosperity and suspicious that Hannibal had been in contact with Antiochus III of Syria , sent a delegation to Carthage alleging Hannibal was helping an enemy of Rome.
He journeyed first to Tyre , the mother city of Carthage, and then to Antioch , before he finally reached Ephesus , where he was honorably received by Antiochus.
Livy states that the Seleucid king consulted Hannibal on the strategic concerns of making war on Rome. The Carthaginian general advised equipping a fleet and landing a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself.
When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. He replied, "I have seen during my life many old fools; but this one beats them all.
The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata.
During one of the naval victories he gained over Eumenes, Hannibal had large pots filled with venomous snakes thrown onto Eumenes' ships.
At this stage, the Romans intervened and threatened Bithynia into giving up Hannibal. The precise year and cause of Hannibal's death are unknown.
Pausanias wrote that Hannibal's death occurred after his finger was wounded by his drawn sword while mounting his horse, resulting in a fever and then his death three days later.
Hannibal, discovering that the castle where he was living was surrounded by Roman soldiers and he could not escape, took poison. Appian writes that it was Prusias who poisoned Hannibal.
Pliny the Elder  and Plutarch , in his life of Flamininus,  record that Hannibal's tomb was at Libyssa on the coast of the Sea of Marmara.
Leake,  identifying Gebze with ancient Dakibyza, placed it further west. Before dying, Hannibal is said to have left behind a letter declaring, "Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death".
Appian wrote of a prophecy about Hannibal's death, which stated that "Libyssan earth shall cover Hannibal's remains. Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society.
He became such a figure of terror that whenever disaster struck, the Roman senators would exclaim " Hannibal ante portas " "Hannibal is at the gates!
This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity.
His legacy would be recorded by his Greek tutor, Sosylus of Lacedaemon. The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary.
Nevertheless, the Romans grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace; they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.
During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions within the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups.
Hannibal's military genius was not enough to really disturb the Roman political process and the collective political and military capacity of the Roman people.
As Lazenby states,. It says volumes, too, for their political maturity and respect for constitutional forms that the complicated machinery of government continued to function even amidst disaster—there are few states in the ancient world in which a general who had lost a battle like Cannae would have dared to remain, let alone would have continued to be treated respectfully as head of state.
The wailing cry of the matrons was heard everywhere, not only in private houses but even in the temples. Here they knelt and swept the temple-floors with their dishevelled hair and lifted up their hands to heaven in piteous entreaty to the gods that they would deliver the City of Rome out of the hands of the enemy and preserve its mothers and children from injury and outrage.
In the Senate the news was "received with varying feelings as men's temperaments differed,"  so it was decided to keep Capua under siege, but to send 15, infantry and 1, cavalry as reinforcements to Rome.
An undeniable proof of Rome's confidence is demonstrated by the fact that after the Cannae disaster she was left virtually defenseless, but the Senate still chose not to withdraw a single garrison from an overseas province to strengthen the city.
In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under the direction of Claudius Marcellus , and later in Hispania under Scipio Africanus.
Most of the sources available to historians about Hannibal are from Romans. They considered him the greatest enemy Rome had ever faced.
Livy gives us the idea that Hannibal was extremely cruel. Even Cicero , when he talked of Rome and its two great enemies, spoke of the "honourable" Pyrrhus and the "cruel" Hannibal.
Yet a different picture sometimes emerges. When Hannibal's successes had brought about the death of two Roman consuls , he vainly searched for the body of Gaius Flaminius on the shores of Lake Trasimene , held ceremonial rituals in recognition of Lucius Aemilius Paullus , and sent Marcellus ' ashes back to his family in Rome.
Any bias attributed to Polybius , however, is more troublesome. Ormerod does not view him as an 'altogether unprejudiced witness' when it came to his pet peeves, the Aetolians, the Carthaginians, and the Cretans.
Hannibal is generally regarded [ by whom? According to Appian , several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal served as a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio arrived there on a diplomatic mission from Rome.
It is said that at one of their meetings in the gymnasium Scipio and Hannibal had a conversation on the subject of generalship, in the presence of a number of bystanders, and that Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest general, to which the latter replied " Alexander of Macedonia ".
To this Scipio assented since he also yielded the first place to Alexander. Then he asked Hannibal whom he placed next, and he replied " Pyrrhus of Epirus ", because he considered boldness the first qualification of a general; "for it would not be possible", he said, "to find two kings more enterprising than these".
Scipio was rather nettled by this, but nevertheless he asked Hannibal to whom he would give the third place, expecting that at least the third would be assigned to him; but Hannibal replied, "to myself; for when I was a young man I conquered Hispania and crossed the Alps with an army, the first after Hercules.
As Scipio saw that he was likely to prolong his self-laudation he said, laughing, "where would you place yourself, Hannibal, if you had not been defeated by me?
Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in an indirect manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander.
At the end of this conversation Hannibal invited Scipio to be his guest, and Scipio replied that he would be so gladly if Hannibal were not living with Antiochus , who was held in suspicion by the Romans.
Thus did they, in a manner worthy of great commanders, cast aside their enmity at the end of their wars.
Military academies all over the world continue to study Hannibal's exploits, especially his victory at Cannae. As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions.
The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity.
In the use of strategies and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other generals of antiquity. Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage.
As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot. We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls.
Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources. The Romans feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice.
Livy speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally great, among which he singles out his more than Punic perfidy and an inhuman cruelty.
For the first there would seem to be no further justification than that he was consummately skillful in the use of ambuscades. For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare.
Sometimes he contrasts most favorably with his enemy. No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Gaius Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal.
Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny.
For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.
Even the Roman chroniclers acknowledged Hannibal's supreme military leadership, writing that "he never required others to do what he could not and would not do himself".
It is a remarkable and very cogent proof of Hannibal's having been by nature a real leader and far superior to anyone else in statesmanship, that though he spent seventeen years in the field, passed through so many barbarous countries, and employed to aid him in desperate and extraordinary enterprises numbers of men of different nations and languages, no one ever dreamt of conspiring against him, nor was he ever deserted by those who had once joined him or submitted to him.
Patton believed himself a reincarnation of Hannibal — as well as of many other people, including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier.
But those same principles of war that applied to the days of Hannibal apply today. According to the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge ,.
Hannibal excelled as a tactician. No battle in history is a finer sample of tactics than Cannae. But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy.
No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.
No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds. Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation.
Excepting in the case of Alexander, and some few isolated instances, all wars up to the Second Punic War, had been decided largely, if not entirely, by battle-tactics.
Strategic ability had been comprehended only on a minor scale. Armies had marched towards each other, had fought in parallel order, and the conqueror had imposed terms on his opponent.
Any variation from this rule consisted in ambuscades or other stratagems. That war could be waged by avoiding in lieu of seeking battle; that the results of a victory could be earned by attacks upon the enemy's communications, by flank-maneuvers, by seizing positions from which safely to threaten him in case he moved, and by other devices of strategy, was not understood That it did so was due to the teaching of Hannibal.
Hannibal is the "hero" of teenager Sigmund Freud. His idealized image is reflected in the analysis by the founder of psychoanalysis of his "dreams of Rome" in The Interpretation of Dreams.
Freud then associates it with the adage "All roads lead to Rome". He writes indeed in The Interpretation of Dreams: "Hannibal and Rome symbolized for the adolescent that I was the opposition between the tenacity of Judaism and the organizing spirit of the Catholic Church".
Some qualities have been recognized by Hannibal since Antiquity: audacity, courage and pugnacity. They are notably implemented during an adventure racing starting from Lyon and leading to Turin through the Alps and bearing his name: the Hannibal raid.
Hannibal covers most of North Africa with olive groves thanks to the work of his soldiers, whose rest he considers prejudicial to the State and their generals.
Hannibal's profile appears on the Tunisian five dinar bill issued on 8 November , as well as on another new bill put into circulation on 20 March His name is also given to a private television channel, Hannibal TV.
A mausoleum and colossus Hannibal, 17 meters high, is projected to be built on the Byrsa , the highest point of Carthage overlooking Tunis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hannibal disambiguation. For the fictional horror character, see Hannibal Lecter.
A marble bust, reputedly of Hannibal, originally found at the ancient city-state of Capua in Italy. Main article: Second Punic War. Main article: Hannibal's crossing of the Alps.
Main article: Battle of the Trebia. Main article: Battle of Lake Trasimene. Main article: Battle of Cannae. Main article: Battle of Zama.
See also: Cultural depictions of Hannibal. Plutarch adds that "when asked what his choices would be if he had beaten Scipio, he replied that he would be the best of them all".
However, Plutarch gives another version in his Life of Pyrrhus , 8. Da Capo Press. Israel and Hellas: Sacred institutions with Roman counterparts.
Personal Names in the Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions. Studien zu Plautus' Poenulus. Phönizisch-Punische Grammatik. Lancel, Hannibal p.
Hannibal p. Hannibal: Challenging Rome's Supremacy p. A Horizon guide: great historic places of Europe. American Heritage Pub.
Retrieved 6 June Lecture "The Second Punic War". Teaching Company, "Great Courses" series. Perseus Books Group.
Gorgias Press. Numismatics International Bulletin. Retrieved 5 October — via Wiley Online Library. Lancel, Hannibal ; English translation page Retrieved 23 July Evelyn S.
Shuckburgh London: Macmillan, , I. Mido Hamada as Mago , Hannibal's youngest brother and the infantry commander. Histro Mitzkov as Gisgo , an officer in Hannibal's army who notably comments on the strength of the Roman army at Cannae.
This earns Hannibals comment that, while there are indeed a lot of Romans, none of them are called Gisgo. Tristan Gemmill as Varro , the consul defeated at Cannae.
Retrieved 21 June The Radio Times Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from November All stub articles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.It was a world war in the sense that it involved about three-quarters of the population of the entire Punic-Greco-Roman world and few people living in the Mediterranean were able to escape it. Really enjoyed it. The author writes in such a way, his stories draw you in and make you either like and care about his characters or hate them because they are vile individuals. I am definitely looking forward to the next book in this exciting trilogy. If you're into Roman period historical fiction, definately read this book. Download as PDF Printable version. This book is fantastic. We also briefly meet Hannibal Rom two older brothers, Sapho Live Stream Kostenlos Online Bostar who presently serve as officers in the Carthaginian army. Carthage lost approximately 20, troops with an additional 15, wounded.